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In this first section, we will examine the history of the Brod region (Slavonski Brod and Bosanski Brod) from the late 1800s up until the events of WWII, while the subsequent section will investigate the memorial objects (spomeniks) that were built during the Yugoslav-era to commemorate the events of that transpired during that war.


Slavonski Brod, Croatia & Bosanski Brod, BiH

Late 1800s to World War II

The towns of Slavonski Brod and Bosanski Brod sit across from each other along the Sava River, having long been culturally and historically connected. The first bridge connecting these two communities was built by Austria-Hungary in 1879, just after control of the region of Bosnia was handed over to them when the Ottoman Empire (its former ruler) had lost the Russo-Turkish War. This bridge served as a spur off of the famed Orient Express train line that could take travelers all the way down to Sarajevo on a narrow gauge track. As such, this crossing from Slavonski Brod into Bosanski Brod (which had until recently been part of the Ottoman Empire) via train was dubbed the "Gateway to the Orient", from the perspective of many Europeans at the time. To suit this moniker, an enormous elaborate Moorish-style train station was built in 1897 in Bosanski Brod to welcome visitors to the Ottoman Empire. Meanwhile, on the Slavonski Brod banks of the river was a grand star-shaped fortress built in the mid-1700s to defend against Ottoman invasions. However, despite these two Brods on the Sava being of strategic importance, they weathered the turmoil of WWI with little conflict or destruction.


Photo 1: An early 20th century postcard view of a street in Slavonski Brod

Photo 2: German soldiers standing over a pile of killed resistance fighters in Bosanski Brod, 1941.


After WWI, these two towns became for the first time part of the same country, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, bringing a new era of collaboration between these communities. However, it was not to last, as conflict again overtook the region as Axis powers invaded Yugoslavia in April of 1941. As the conflict began, both towns fell under the authority of fascist controlled "Independent State of Croatia" [NDH], operated by the Nazi-collaborating force, the "Ustaše". The control and occupation exerted by the Ustaše were particularly brutal for the towns' ethnic-Serb, Jewish and Roma populations, as they were specifically targeted for removal, expulsion or worse. During this early part of the occupation, the Slavonski Brod Synagogue was burned and hundreds were shipped off to the notorious concentration camp up the Sava River at Jasenovac [profile page]. In the area of these two towns, two separate resistance forces began to operate. The first was the Serb-nationalist group known as the "Chetniks", while the second was the "Partisans", the multi-ethnic communist revolutionaries.

These two resistance groups operated in the area together with great initial success in the Bosanski Brod and Slavonski Brod areas, however, their resistance efforts were quickly squashed by the Ustaše and German Army forces (while the cooperation between the Partisans and the Chetniks quickly dissolved). For instance, on August 26th, 1941, over 80 resistance fighters were executed by Axis soldiers (Photo 2). It bears mentioning that the German Army was present in a modest capacity within this area as a result of there being a marginal ethnic-German population that resided in the area.

The reason which Axis forces were so keen on vanquishing any uprising or resistance attempts in the Brod region was the result of it being one of Germany's main transport hubs of all of the mineral bauxite, which was being mined across Bosnia i Hercegovina (particularly at Zenica). Where the railway line created from Brod to Sarajevo during the late 19th century formerly provided transport for tourists, now, during WWII, it provided transport for raw materials that served the German war effort. Bauxite is a central mineral required in the industrial production of aluminum, an extremely valuable metal largely used in the fabrication of aircraft. As such, access to bauxite was of the utmost strategic importance to Germany and, with Germany getting roughly half of its bauxite during the height of the war from Bosnia, the region of Brod, being the transportation gateway to Bosnia, suddenly also became of the utmost strategic importance to Germany. In addition, Brod's importance was extended even further when taking into account that Slavonski Brod contained the only ammunition factory in all of the NDH. while across the river in Bosanski Brod, critical oil refineries existed.


Photo 3: A vintage pre-WWII postcard showing the Brod Bridge over the Sava River.

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Photo 4: A 1945 image of the bombed-out ruins of Slavonski Brod after Alied bombings.

The strategic importance of the Brod region to Germany was not something that was overlooked by Allied forces. After the Capitulation of Italy in September of 1943, Allies started a massive bombing campaign across Yugoslavia against Axis positions from its new base in Bari, Italy. At first these were aimed largely at coastal targets along the Dalmatian coast but, with the coming spring of 1944, inland positions began to be targeted. An intense Allied bombing campaign against the area of Brod began on April 2nd, 1944. Allied bombing of Brod would continue until the end of the war, during which time Slavonski Brod was targeted with 26 bombing campaigns while Bosanski Brod suffered 21 campaigns. Each bombing campaign would include +1000 bombs being dropped upon the towns. According to sources, over 1,200 people in the two towns were killed during these campaigns (with over 780 wounded).

As the doom of defeat began to be realized by the Nazi and fascist authorities in Yugoslavia, many Axis troops across the region were passing through Brod on their path of retreat up towards Germany, which, in effect, resulted in Brod being either further bombed by Allied planes as Nazis would congregate in this area. Of all of the urban zones targeted by Allied bombings during WWII in Yugoslavia, the towns of Slavonski & Bosanski Brod were some of the most devestated (Photo 4). By the spring of 1945, Partisans were beginning to advance towards Slavonski Brod from the east. To avoid being captured, the remaining Germans and Ustaše in the town crossed over the rail bridge to Bosanski Brod to escape capture. To ensure they weren't pursued by the Partisans, in early April 1945, they set explosives on the bridge and destroyed it. However, this strategy did not work and these Axis troops were all eventually captured or killed by the descending Partisans, who liberated the Brod region on April 20th of 1945.

WWII Monuments in Brod:

In this section, we will investigate the Yugoslav-era WWII monuments that exist in the towns of Slavonski Brod and Bosanski Brod (which are both often referred to as simply "Brod"), as well as looking at any examples of such sites that exist in the greater areas of these towns as well. The sites that will be explored in this section are the Monument to Fallen Fighters and the Đuro Đaković Monument, both in Slavonski Brod, as well as the Hunger Monument in Bosanski Brod.

Monument to Fallen Fighters:

At the heart of Slavonski Brod is a thickly forested park known as "Klasije" (but also sometimes referred to as "Victory Square"). A statue was erected in 1951 at the north end of this park which commemorated local Partisan fighters who perished during WWII and was the work of Zagreb sculptor Dušan Džamonja. Interestingly, Džamonja, who would go on later during the Yugoslav-era to create some of the country's most famous and widely recognized abstract memorial sculptures, started his lifelong career of monument creation with figurative monuments making this very statue here at Slavonski Brod (along with another also 1951 at Pazin). Džamonja's work at Klasije Park, sometimes known as "Revolucija/Revolution", consisted of a bronze-cast shirtless male figure perched atop a ~6m tall stone pedestal. The figure holds a flag pole high up in the air with his left hand while allowing the flag to drape behind him over his right arm which is extended behind him, all the while he leans forward dramatically almost to the point of seeming to fall over (presumably wounded from a gunshot, using his final strength to hold up his flag) (Photo 5). Meanwhile, at the base of the pedestal, the tall pedestal the statue stands upon are two bronze relief sculptures depicting Partisans at battle. As the name might suggest, the statue stood as a symbol of the local Partisan revolutionary uprising and their victory over fascism during WWII. Džamonja's statue stood here at this location within the park until 1995, at which point it was removed and all traces of its existence were expunged from the park (Photo 6).

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Photo 6: A 1995 photo showing the monument's pedestal after it had been toppled.


Photo 5: A vintage postcard view of the Monument to Fallen Fighters that existed in Slavonski Brod.

The final fate of the statue remains unknown... nor is it known what were the exact circumstances surrounding its removal, who was involved and what motivations were behind its removal. It can be presumed that the sculpture was destroyed and sold for the meager amount of money it could be redeemed for scrap metal (as was the fate of many NOB sculptures in Croatia during the 1990s) but even this can not be established with any certainty. On the whole, very little information is available about this monument in any form. Furthermore, few detailed photos are available of this monument, particularly any close-up images of the relief sculptures at the base of the pedestal. It is also unknown if any inscriptions or engravings existed at the monument site. In 1997, a bronze memorial bust of controversial 19th century Croatian politician Ante Starčević was erected near the former location of the 'Revolution' statue in Klasije Park. The exact coordinates for the former location of this monument are 45°09'29.6"N, 18°00'44.7"E.

The Hunger Monument:

Near the banks of the Sava River in Bosanski Brod sits a memorial site that is commonly known as "The Hunger Monument", a work that serves as an ossuary and crypt for the remains of local fighters who fought and fell during WWII, particularly the Partisan 21st Serbian Strike Division, as well as the many local civilian victims of fascist oppression and occupation. The central element of this memorial site is a bronze sculptural composition of five nude figures, roughly 4m tall, who are all bound in shackles and severely emaciated, with their ribs protruding from their body and their heads shaved (Photo 7). This scene is replete with pathos and drama, as we are confronted with the horrors of war, starvation, torture and suffering, all qualities that make this work one of the most visceral memorial depictions in the region. This composition originally stood atop a 9m tall pedestal that rose above an elevated viewing platform (that at one point would have offered excellent views of the Sava River, but the view is today overgrown). This work was completed around 1963 and was the work of Sarajevo sculptor Petar Krstić [profile page]. There were also originally several inscriptions here at this memorial site, however, I have not yet been able to find any documentation of them. 

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Photo 7: A vintage Yugoslav-era photo of the Hunger Monument at Bosanski Brod.

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Photo 8: A close up photo of the sculpture at the Hunger Monument at Brod, BiH. Credit: Bes Grg

The Hunger Monument suffered serious damage during the Bosnian War, leaving it in a tattered and devastated condition after 1992. However, the memorial site was subsequently restored and rehabilitated in 2005 and then received further improvements in 2016. As a result of the restoration efforts, the sculptural composition was brought down from its high pedestal and placed on the level of the viewing platform (Photo 8). This new placement, while not respecting the original orientation of the memorial site, does allow visitors to more closely inspect and appreciate the highly emotive sculptural work of Krstić. Also, while the original engraved plaques that existed at this monument site were lost/destroyed during the 1990s wars, new inscribed memorial stone panels were installed during the 2000s renovations, listing the names of local fallen Partisan fighters and victims of fascist violence (particularly against Jewish victims). The exact coordinates for the Hunger Monument here at Brod, BiH are N45°08'48.1", E17°59'43.8".

Monument to Đuro Đaković:

Roughly 2km northwest of Slavonski Brod is the small suburb village of Brodski Varoš. It is within this community exists the Monument and Birthplace Memorial to Đuro Đaković, who was born here in 1886. Đuro Đaković was a Croatian metalworker who lived in Sarajevo during the 1910s and was actively involved in union organizing and striking against unfair working conditions. During WWI, he openly opposed Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, at which point he was arrested and sentenced to death, but was later pardoned by a subsequent court review. After the war, during the era of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Đaković began to take part in political leadership efforts and activities within the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. After several arrests, he was deported out of Sarajevo back to his home region. However, he was soon thereafter quoted publically denouncing the dictatorship of Yugoslav king Alexander I. He was then summarily executed in Zagreb as a result on April 25th, 1929.

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Photo 9: A vintage view of the Monument to Đuro Đaković just outside of Slavonski Brod.

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Photo 10: A 2010s view of the Đuro Đaković monument [right] next to his then dilapidated historic homestead [left].

Even though Đaković was not related to the events of WWII, his role as a martyr for the Yugoslav communist cause led to be being embraced as one of the central folk heroes during the socialist Yugoslav era, leading to numerous streets, schools, etc. across the country being named after him. In 1947, the primary metal fabrication and machine factory in Slavonski Brod changed its name to "Đuro Đaković" and became one of the most important and recognized industries in Yugoslavia. Then, in 1979, the Croatian sculptor Ivan Sabolić erected a bronze sculptural work depicting Đuro Đaković in front of his birthplace home at Brodski Varoš (Photo 9), which at that point was organized as an ethnographic collection under the management of the Museum of Brod Posavlje. Sabolić's sculptural composition consisted of a bronze image of Đaković, standing ~2.5m tall, leaning over a metalworking anvil. The work's design is highly stylized (with its details smoothed and rendered with faint impressions), illustrating some of the more abstract tendencies of Sabolić's artistry.

While the bronze monument created by Sabolić has remained in fairly good condition over the decades, the homestead of Đaković (which was in excellent condition during the Yugoslav-era) fell into a state of complete disrepair starting in the 1990s, nearly to the point of falling apart entirely by the late 2010s (Photo 10). Efforts were put forward towards its restoration starting in 2019, however, the project was and has been plagued with underfunding and questionable "preservation" practices. The site is currently protected as a historical heritage site and entered in the Croatian Register of Immovable Cultural Monuments. Its exact coordinates are N45°10'42.9", E17°58'26.2".

Additional Yugoslav-era Sites in Brod:

In this section, we will examine the many sites across the Brod region that are historically and culturally significant to the Yugoslav-era, particularly sites that speak of WWII history, architectural heritage and modern art. These sites include Hotel Park, the Bosanski Brod Train Station, the "Vesna" Department Store, the Ružić Gallery at the Brod Fortress, the Memorial Center "Đuro Salaj" and the Motel “Marsonia Jug”.

Hotel Park:

In the town center of Slavonski Brod is one of the community's most historically significant buildings, the former "Hotel Park". This complex, constructed in 1932, was fashioned in the early modernist style and was commissioned by the local wealthy "Benčević" family and constructed by the local shipbuilder Đura Šimić, which might explain its very boat-like appearance. During the late 1930s, it operated as "Hotel Brod", but then, as WWII arrived, the German Army took over the hotel and employed it as a soldier's barracks, military police station and prison. After the war, the new communist regime nationalized the structure, also themselves using it as a military and police barracks, as well as an office and prison for the notorious "OZNA" group. However, by the late 1940s, the hotel was handed over to the Đuro Đaković Factory for use as an accommodation for single male workers, which is why the "Đuro Đaković" sign is seen on top of the building during this era.

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Photo 11: A vintage postcard view of Hotel Park in Slavonski Brod, Croatia.

Then, on June 11th, 1961, the building was reorganized and re-opened as an upscale establishment called "Hotel Park" (Photo 11), making it the first modern contemporary accommodation in the town. The site became such a local favorite of nightlife, culture and society that it was featured on nearly all of the town's postcards during the Yugoslav-era. As one journalist from the time period wrote, it was a "living symbol of the town". However, with the start of the Yugoslav Wars at the beginning of the 1990s, the Park hotel fell victim to shelling from VRS positions across the river in Bosanska Posavina region. After the war, the hotel sat in a state of disuse and disrepair, a condition which sat in for roughly two decades. However, in 2014, it was bought by local ship entrepreneur Rajko Čuljak, who began to renovate the structure in 2017. The renovations of the new "Hotel Park" were on the verge of being unveiled in 2024, however, they have resulted in considerable changes to the original exterior facade that diminished its historical architectural value. The exact coordinates of Hotel Park are N45°09'23.5", E18°00'44.5". For more info, see THIS article.

"Vesna" Department Store:

Located in Slavonski Brod, situated right at the western edge of its central promenade of Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić Square, is what was formerly the “Vesna” Department Store. Designed by notable Zagreb architect Milivoj Peterčić, Vensa immediately became a central community hub upon its opening on February, 9th 1971 (Photo 12). The 1st Croatian Savings Bank (constructed in 1924) was demolished to make way for this project. The "Vesna" complex was ceremoniously unveiled by the notable local professor Blaženka Gogić. Its concrete framed brick facade is cantilevered out to such a degree that the whole structure almost appears to float above the wrap-around glass walls of the ground level. Such engaging architectural flourishes made such places all the more exciting for shoppers, illustrating that, although Yugoslavia was a communist country, businesses were firmly exploring the Western capitalist idea of creating unique “consumer experiences” for their patrons.

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Photo 12: A vintage view of the "Vesna" Department Store in Slavonski Brod.

During the Yugoslav-era, this was the primary commercial destination for Slavonski Brod shoppers and it became such a pivotal landmark for the community (a symbol of progress and modernity) that it was featured on numerous of the town's touristic postcards. However, as the Yugoslav era passed, Vesna found itself struggling in a newly independent Croatia. Then, by 2013, Vesna went bankrupt and the complex was left abandoned. As of 2024, it continues to sit vacant and in poor condition, while city authorities of Slavonski Brod struggle to sell the structure to new investors. There are proposals to demolish the building in order to construct in its place a more contemporary commercial building, however, there are some that oppose this demolition. The exact coordinates for this location are N45°09'16.5", E18°00'41.2".

Bosanski Brod Train Station:

After the Ottoman Empire lost the Russo-Turkish War of 1878, the administration of the region of Bosnia & Hercegovina was handed over to Austria-Hungary as part of the Congress of Berlin. It was at this point that a railway bridge over the Sava connecting Bosanski and Slavonski Brod was constructed in 1879, with the narrow gauged railway that stretched from here to Sarajevo finally being completed in 1882. At this point of crossing over the Sava River from Slavonski to Bosanski Brod, rail passengers would be going from the Austro-Hungarian Empire into what had been, until recently, the Ottoman Empire. As such, this point was often referred to as the "Gateway to the Orient". To befit such a designation, a grand Moorish-style railway station was constructed in Bosanski Brod on the other end of the rail bridge in 1897 as a means of welcoming travelers to the region (Photo 13), seemingly to set the tone for the landscape they were at that moment entering.

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Photo 13: A vintage postcard view of the Bosanski Brod Train Station.

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Photo 14: A contemporary view of the remaining ruins of the Bosanski Brod Train Station.

The design of this impressive train station was undertaken by the Czech architect Hans Niemeczek, who had worked on several other buildings in the Moorish-Revival style in Bosnia, such as the first "City Theater" [1881 -now demolished], what is today the Embassy of Iran [1895] and the Faculty of Islamic Studies [1889], all in Sarajevo. Undoubtedly, the most famous building in the Moorish-Revival style is the National & University Library (Viječnica) in Sarajevo, created in 1891 by Czech architect Karel Pařík. The train station that Niemeczek had created at Bosanski Brod was an enormous 120m long luxurious building that was profuse with adornments and decoration to match its elaborate style. Its interior was equally extravagant, with expressive woodworking, mosaic tiling, and Moorish-style furniture. Austria-Hungary's promotion of the Moorish-Revival style across Bosnia was meant not only to pander to tourists with a "Euro-fantasy" depiction of "Islamic architecture", but it was also part of an effort to create for the region a distinctly "Bosnian" cultural identity, as a means of distancing the population from both the Ottoman Empire and the growing Pan-Slavic movement.

In regards to the Bosanski Brod train station, it was a true success in this right, with many regarding it as one of the most beautiful train stations in Europe and it being embraced as a true symbol of the community. While it weathered the violence and destruction of WWI, the train station sadly was destroyed in WWII during Allied bombing campaigns against the region of Brod on January 19th, 1945. All that remained of the vast station was a small portion of the west wing of the complex. This ruined remnant west wing of the station continued to be used as Bosanski Brod's train stop through the Yugoslav-era up until the train line itself was disbanded and dismantled, with the last train leaving the station on June 1st, 1969. After this point, the remains of the Bosanski Brod station were left disused and abandoned for the subsequent five decades, right up to the present day (Photo 14). Today, the remains of the station sit tattered, worn out and graffitied, with no signs bringing attention to the ruins nor any placards relating their historical significance. There are proposals to rebuild the station but no such actual efforts are currently being considered by local or national authorities. The exact coordinates for the train station's remains are N45°08'34.4", E17°59'25.2".

Ružić Gallery at the Brod Fortress:

Situated in the center of Slavonski Brod is the famous 18th-century "Brod Fortress", which is a large star-shaped fortification constructed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire as a means to defend against potential advances of the Ottoman Empire. It was here within the fortress that the town authorities of Slavonski Brod decided to establish an art gallery in the early 1990s after being gifted the life's work of famous artist Branko Ružić (Photo 15), who was not only from Slavonski Brod but also one of the greatest Croatian modern artists of the Yugoslav-era. Not only did Ružić gift the town his work, he also gifted his huge collection of work by many other massive names in Yugoslav-era modern art, such as Dušan Džamonja, Vojin Bakić, Ivan Kožarić, and Edo Murtić, many of whom created some of the most significant WWII monuments in the country. Laid out over 1,800 sq meters, the Ružić Gallery is one of the most important institutions in Croatia for viewing the country's heritage of 20th century modern art.


Photo 15: A photo of the interior of the Ružić Gallery in Slavonski Brod [source]

The Ružić Gallery continues to operate up to the present day and is operated by the City Art Gallery of Slavonski Brod. It is open to the public Monday through Saturday. For more information, info on visiting the gallery can be found HERE, while more history about the gallery can be found HERE. The exact coordinates for the gallery are N45°09'21.6", E18°00'22.7".

Memorial Center "Đuro Salaj":

Right in the center of Slavonski Brod adjacent to the main Korzo promenade is a performance complex that was originally laid out as a memorial center known as the Spomen-Dom "Đuro Salaj" (Photo 16). Unveiled on January 29th, 1972 and built by the Zagreb architect team of Marijan Haberle & Minka Jurković, the figure whom this complex was named after, Đuro Salaj, lived here in Slavonski Brod during the interwar period, during which time he was leader of the Social Democrat Party, which would later merge with other regional socialist groups to ultimately become the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ) (of which Salaj was one of the founding members). The impetus to construct this complex began in 1959, the year after Salaj's passing. Work began in 1961 on the memorial center, however, a long pause in work occurred in the middle of the project as a result of an earthquake in 1963 in Slavonski Brod, which resulted in the center not being completed until 1972.

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Photo 16: A recent view of what was formerly the Memorial Center "Đuro Salaj" in Slavonski Brod.

Fashioned in the International Style, with its clean horizontal lines, pure white facade, glass curtain walls, and cantilevered segments, the Spomen-Dom "Đuro Salaj" is classically modernist, clearly taking notes from Le Corbusier's famous Villa Savoye. During the Yugoslav-era, it hosted a Workers' University, a library, study centers for the students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Economics, the memorial center had everything with which to honor the champion of workers' rights and empowerment, which Salaj was. In the post-Yugoslav era, the institution ceased its operation as a memorial center and was converted into a performing arts center. Today the complex is known as the Theatre and Concert Hall Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, named after the famed Croatian children's author who moved here to Slavonski Brod after getting married in 1892. Also, the east wing of the complex still operates as a public library. The exact coordinates for this facility are N45°09'13.1", E18°00'36.3".

Motel “Marsonia Jug”:

During the late 1980s, the INA petrol station along Slavonski Brod's eastbound motorway, situated right beside a convenient pull-off and rest stop, was looking to expand its offerings to motorists. The complex that INA chose to construct was an expansive roadside accommodation that they dubbed Motel “Marsonia Jug” (or “Motel Marsonia South”) (Photo 17). Marsonia South was intended to be a substantial expansion of the much smaller “Motel Marisona North” that stood just across the motorway by the adjacent westbound INA petrol station (which was already in operation). Unfortunately, very little information is available concerning the construction or design of either of these motels, who their architect were, or even the precise years of their construction. However, what is known is that construction on the project ceased around the early 1990s as a result of the dismantling of Yugoslavia and the war that took hold of this region during that time period.

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Photo 17: A vintage view of the ruins of the Motel “Marsonia Jug”s just outside of Slavonski Brod.

It was at this point that the Motel “Marsonia Jug” began to descend into a state of disrepair and dereliction.  In addition, the Motel Marisona North property fell into a state of chaos and disrepair as well. Through the subsequent three since the early 1990s, both the North and South Marisona Motels have sat idle and in a devastated condition. The INA Petrol company has maintained ownership of them but has been unable to find any investors who might be able to rehabilitate and/or complete the unfinished portions of these sites. As of 2024, both locations still sit just as they have been over the last 30 years. They stand now as mere curiosities for the millions of passers-by of Slavonski Brod along the motorway who see the empty masses of these abandoned properties on the side of the road. The exact coordinates for the Marsonia South Motel are N45°10'48.0", E18°00'26.5".


Please feel free to leave a message if you have any comments, if you have any questions, if you have corrections or if you have any additional information or insight you feel might be appropriate or pertinent to this spomenik's profile page.

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