Updated: Jun 10
During the Bosnian War and the Siege of Sarajevo, the Museum of the Revolution complex suffered significant damage. Many exhibits and artworks within the museum were damaged, including Dimitrijević’s massive stained glass window, whose tattered remains can still be seen on display in the museum’s lobby. In 1993, the complex changed its name to the “tral Museum of the Revolution” in Moscow which had opened in 1924), Yugoslavia quickly began to establish its own national network of “Museums of the Revolution”, sometimes referred to as “red museums”, in many of its most significant cities. In understanding the importance of such “Museums of the Revolution” in constructing a new society across Yugoslavia, it helps to envision such institutions as the conduits through which the “the continuity of the revolutionary traditions”, as well as the “the evolution of the Yugoslav proletariat”, were all perpetuated, as explained by Pintar & Ignjatović. Thus, these museum institutions became the means by which Yugoslavia would achieve its goal of cultivating a permanent revolution among the working class, so the events of WWII and the struggles of the Partisan fighters would not be forgotten.
However, it is important to recognize the conundrum Yugoslavia faced in its efforts of museumizing the idea of the “permanent revolution”... how do you relegate to the dusty confines of the museum that which is supposed to be ongoing, eternal and forever relevant? Furthermore, could these museums alone act as successful mechanisms to communicate and make relevant the spirit of the revolution to the next generation who never themselves experienced the war?
Yet, it must be noted that in their purpose, these institutions transcended being simply museums dedicated to the events of WWII or the memory of the revolution. As historian Kaja Širok notes, “by encouraging the creation of red museums, the communist regime reinforced its position and helped promote selected images of the past, at the expense of others”, and meanwhile, she further emphasizes that “histories and particular events deemed unsuitable or uncomfortable by the authorities were completely suppressed, even made taboo.” Yet, that is not to say that these museums and the legions of curators and historians who operated them viewed themselves as purveyors of “propaganda”, but rather, these staff saw their museums, as historian Joel Palhegyi explains, “[as] sites for critical thought and visitor engagement where the masses would organically discover both their national and their socialist cultural values”. Yet, Palhegyi goes on to explain that as hopeful as the staff might have been for visitors to engage in “critical thought”, only one narrative was ever available… “[these] professionals understood museums as crucial sites for altering the consciousness of their visitors in order to instill Marxist historical truths about the course of human history toward socialism.”
In this article, we will explore the eight major institutions from Yugoslavia that were created (or intended to be created) in honor of that former nation’s WWII uprising and subsequent revolution. Each museum will be examined from its foundation all the way up to its post-Yugoslav history and its current/contemporary status. Examining the condition of these museums, how they’ve changed (or not changed) over the decades since the 1990s, and how they fit into the contemporary politics of each of the former republics can reveal significant amounts about how current populations relate/related to these institutions and, by proxy, the history of Yugoslavia’s revolution and uprising itself.
1.) Sarajevo, BiH
Original name: Museum of the Revolution
Current name: History Museum of Bosnia & Hercegovina
Years of construction: 1959-1963
Architect(s): Boris Magaš, Edi Šmidihen and Radovan Horvat
Coordinates: 43°51'19.6"N, 18°24'03.8"E
When it was first founded in Sarajevo on November 28th, 1945 (just under three months after the official end of WWII), the Museum of the Revolution (which was originally called the Museum of the People’s Liberation Struggle) was located in the library of Sarajevo’s City Hall. It was situated at this location for several decades until the choice was made to construct a tailor-made facility to host its extensive historical collections. The plot selected for this new facility was the Marijin Dvor neighborhood of the city right across the street from the National Museum. The group that was awarded first prize in the design competition for the museum’s creation and construction was a team from the Zagreb School of Architecture: Boris Magaš, Edi Šmidihen and Radovan Horvat. Work subsequently began on the new Museum of the Revolution in 1959 and it was finally completed in July of 1963. In recognition of the architectural excellence of the design, the architects were awarded the National Award "Viktor Kovačić" in 1963 by the Association of Croatian Architects. The museum’s first permanent exhibition was opened on November 25th, 1966, which was designed by architect Đuka Kavurić (the same creator of the original exhibition at the Museum of the Revolution in Novi Sad) and curated by its director, Moni Finci.
The shape of the Museum of the Revolution which was designed by Magaš, Šmidihen and Horvat is dominated by its rectangular box entryway. This imposing white mass clad in white Brač limestone, designed in such a way that it appears to float over the ground, is kept suspended by nine concealed steel pillars, all surrounded underneath by curtains of glass-paned walls. Furthermore, the whole mass itself sits upon a platform base raised 2 meters off the ground, furthering the impressive spectacle of the structure. The complex then extends southwards through a series of glass corridors connecting a collection of exhibition spaces. Three sides of the museum form a courtyard within which were displayed various artworks and military armaments.
Upon entering the glass lobby, the most noticeable work of art was a famous rectangular stained glass window (roughly 4m wide). This colorful cube-patterned window was titled "Death to Fascism, Freedom to the People" and was created in 1966 by local Sarajevo artist Vojo Dimitrijević. An additional large-scale artwork created within the museum was a multi-level memorial mosaic mural titled "Bosna" by famous Serbian artist Mladen Srbinović. Located along the walls of the museum's main stairwell, the abstract and dynamic mosaic spans several levels and operates as a memorial to the history of Bosnia & Herzegovina. Famous Croatian artist Antun Augustinčić also contributed several significant works of art to the museum, including a version of his notable “Carrying the Wounded”, as well as a bronze version of his celebrated depiction of Josip Broz Tito. Other notable works in the museum included the painting "Juriš/Onslaught" by Ismet Mujezinović and the 1960 sculpture made of weapons titled "Zakletva Ustanika/Oath of the Uprisers" by Nandor Glid. As can be seen from the photos in this section, the museum’s permanent exhibit showcased significant amounts of artwork, artifacts, dioramas and other educational material related to WWII, the People’s Liberation Struggle and the socialist revolution in Yugoslavia.
During the Bosnian War and the Siege of Sarajevo, the Museum of the Revolution complex suffered significant damage. Many exhibits and artworks within the museum were damaged, including Dimitrijević’s massive stained glass window, whose tattered remains can still be seen on display in the museum’s lobby. In 1993, the complex changed its name to the “History Museum of Bosnia & Hercegovina”, altering the original scope and focus of the museum. While some exhibits still remain that are related to WWII and the Partisan fight against fascism, the most extensive permanent exhibit currently on display in the museum is dedicated to the Bosnian War and the Siege of Sarajevo. Since the end of the Yugoslav-era, the museum is no longer financed by the government, but is instead kept in operation exclusively by grants, donations and ticket sales. Yet, despite these issues with funding, the building was designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina in November of 2012. The current director of the museum is Elma Hashimbegović. The official Facebook page for the museum can be found at THIS link. In 2020, the podcast “Remembering Yugoslavia” featured a fascinating interview museum’s main curator, Elma Hodžić, which can be found at THIS link.
2.) Belgrade, Serbia
Original name: Museum of the Revolution
Current name: n/a
Year of construction: began 1978, never completed
Architect(s): Vjenceslav Richter
Coordinates: 44°49'03.7"N, 20°25'59.2"E
In the years after WWII, a number of “Museums of the Revolution” began to pop up across Yugoslavia. However, party leaders in Belgrade began to notice that the historical messaging between all of these institutions was fragmented and lacked the united narrative that politicians in Belgrade wished to see. As such, 1959, the Central Committee began to organize the creation of a Museum of the Revolution that would be one of the centerpieces of New Belgrade, while ensuring a clear and concise message about the “Brotherhood and Unity” of the People’s Liberation Struggle was effectively communicated. Even the official name of this museum project, “The Museum of the Revolution of the Peoples and Ethnicities of Yugoslavia”, worked towards communicating a sense of togetherness and unity. Even its being built in New Belgrade, rather than Old Belgrade, was symbolic, as New Belgrade was at that time being constructed as a “city for all Yugoslavia”. A design competition for this new museum was announced in 1961. After receiving 29 entries, the selection committee chose a design created by famous Zagreb architect and artist Vjenceslav Richter. However, until this new facility was built, Belgrade’s Museum of the Revolution was temporarily housed within the old Privileged Agrarian Bank building (today the Historical Museum of Serbia) at Marx & Engels Square (today called Nikola Pašić Square).
Richter’s design was composed of an elevated multi-level square pavilion exhibition space (set to be roughly 75m wide), with the design being characterized by its concept of a tent-like sculptural roof meant to rise 50m into the sky. The facade of the museum itself would be composed of raw panels of pre-stressed concrete. In describing his motivations behind the design of the museum, one source notes that Richter was quoted as saying that “is to safeguard the truth about us… the architecture of the Museum of the Revolution has to express this pervasive and great idea. Our idea and the idea of us. It is as much ours as it is new and authentic”. Originally, the site chosen for the museum was to be close to the confluence of the Danube and Sava, adjacent to where the Museum of Contemporary Art is located, as part of a collection of museum institutions. However, the plan for this museum district at the confluence was subsequently scrapped (largely due to the close proximity of the river) and a new site for the Museum of the Revolution was chosen nearby between the SIV (aka: the Palace of Serbia) and the Central Committee (CK) Building (today the Ušće Tower). For many years through the 1960s and early 1970s, the construction of the museum was postponed as a result of a lack of funding. It was not until 1977 that a funding package was passed by the parliament, with a planned opening date set for 1981 in order to mark the 40th anniversary of the uprising against fascism during WWII.
Construction on the project began in 1978, but progress was slow and funding was inconsistent, particularly as economic hardship struck Yugoslavia during the 1980s. The 1981 deadline passed with only the basement level of the structure completed and all construction had ceased with funds drying up. By the end of the 1980s, efforts on the project were all but abandoned and as Yugoslavia began to be dismantled through the subsequent years, the unfinished construction site of the Museum of the Revolution fell into a state of ruin and dereliction. Its dark cavernous basement turned into a site of urban decay that sat forgotten within the fabric of New Belgrade, attracting homeless individuals and vagrants. From a distance, the only noticeable sign of the structure is a series of steel rod bundles that were meant to operate as supporting columns for the above-ground structure. In a 2013 paper, architectural historian Vladimir Kulić reminisces on this scene: “The tall columns supporting nothing, still discernible behind the surrounding dense greenery, vividly speak of the declining status of the federation, which for more than 20 years could not bring itself to finish a project of such symbolic significance for its own ideological system.” As far as the fate of the Museum of the Revolution that operated within the old Privileged Agrarian Bank building, it ceased operation in the mid-1990s and, in 1996, its collection and archives were merged with the institution that is now known as the Museum of Yugoslavia at Dedinje.
Since the late 2010s, efforts have been underway to demolish the ruins of the Museum of the Revolution and replace it with a Philharmonic Center (set to cost around 30 million euros). In 2017, a design competition for this concert hall was won by an ambitious proposal put forward by architects Dragan Marčetić and Milan Maksimović [images of the proposal can be seen at THIS link]. However, as of spring 2022, no effort towards this project is yet to be started.
3.) Zagreb, Croatia
Original name: House of Fine Arts of King Peter I the Great Liberator
Current name: Croatian Society of Fine Artists
Years of construction: 1933-1938
Architect(s): Ivan Meštrović (with Ladislav Horvat and Harold Bilinić)
Coordinates: 45°48'34.9"N, 15°59'13.9"E
The facility that came to house the Museum of the Revolution in Zagreb has a long and unique history. The story starts in the early 1930s, when the Croatian Art Society “Strossmayer” in Zagreb was exploring ideas for creating a new exhibition space for the city. The commission for building this site was taken up by famous Croatian artist Ivan Meštrović, who is often credited as being among the most important artists in Croatian history. The site selected for the facility was the “Square of King Peter” (today the “Square of the Victims of Fascism”), while the project began in 1933 and was finished about five years later in 1938, with its first exhibition titled “A Half Century of Croatian Art” and the pavilion receiving its dedication from none other than Archbishop of Zagreb, Alojzije Stepinac. Meštrović’s exhibition pavilion is typified by its circular rotunda architecture surrounded by square columns, designed in a style that is described as “stripped classicism” (a style characterized by its clean lines and absence of ornamentation). The interior of the rotunda features an exquisite circular ceiling, created by architect Zvonimir Kavurić, that is composed of thousands of small round glass tiles that allow natural light to penetrate into the gallery. The official name given the gallery was the “House of Fine Arts of King Peter I the Great Liberator”. However, the gallery only operated for three years before it was struck by major changes.
With the start of WWII in 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded and dismantled by Axis powers, which led to the creation of the Axis-aligned puppet-government of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), with Zagreb chosen as its capital. The NDH leader Ante Pavelić subsequently made the choice to have the House of Fine Arts converted into a mosque. These changes, which were headed by architect Zvonimir Požgaj, included the addition of three massive 45m tall minarets surrounding the pavilion. As the minarets reached completion in January of 1943, the Muslim call to prayer echoed out across Zagreb for the very first time, according to some sources. The mosque within the square (which was named “Kulina Ban Square” during the war) was officially opened in August of 1944. However, after WWII ended the following year, the new Yugoslav communist government in Zagreb only allowed the mosque to operate for a few more years before it was evicted in 1949, at which point the minarets were torn down. In explaining the demolition, the VP of the City People’s Committee, Mika Špiljak, stated that the minarets were “erected by executioner Pavelić to incite hatred… [and] fratricidal war between our peoples”.
After the demolition of the minarets, efforts began towards the creation of a new institution with the old House of Fine Arts that was originally known as the “Museum of the Croatian People's Revolution”. The job of retrofitting the pavilion into this new museum was undertaken by famous Croatian architect Vjenceslav Richter. While the exterior of the pavilion was left largely the same, Richter added a staircase leading from the ground floor of the main rotunda up to the mezzanine and installing a corrugated facade around the rotunda’s interior to lessen the circular shape of the space, while also covering up the glass tile dome screen created by Kavurić. The completed renovation was unveiled on April 15th, 1955. In 1962, the name of the institution was changed to a more simple “Museum of the Revolution”. During its operation, this institution housed over 100,000 objects related to the People’s Liberation Struggle in Croatia and hosted tens of thousands of visitors every year. The museum was unique in that it hosted a collection dedicated to a war that the building itself played its own distinct role in.
During the 1980s, even before the end of the Yugoslav-era, there were calls for the modifications made to the pavilion over the last 40 years to be removed and efforts be made to bring the complex back to its pre-WWII appearance. Then, in 1991, as Croatia separated itself from Yugoslavia, the Museum of the Revolution ceased its operations. The pavilion was handed over to the Croatian Society of Fine Artists (HDLU), who proceeded to initiate a renovation to bring it closer to its original 1938 design that Meštrović intended. These renovations were completed in 2003, at which point the pavilion opened to the public as the House of the Croatian Society of Fine Artists (Dom HDLU), however, despite the fact that the building has not been a mosque since the mid-1940s, many in Zagreb still colloquially refer to the facility as “džamija“ (“the mosque”). The official website for the gallery can be found at THIS link.
4.) Rijeka, Croatia
Original name: Museum of the People's Revolution of Rijeka
Current name: The City Museum of Rijeka
Years of construction: 1972-1976
Architect(s): Neven Šegvić
Coordinates: 45°19'47.8"N, 14°26'31.6"E
The origins of the Museum of the Revolution in Rijeka, Croatia go back to May of 1961, at which point the City People’s Committee of Rijeka laid the groundwork for the creation of this institution. However, the initiation of the museum itself was put forward by notable Rijeka art historian Boško Končar, who served as its first and most famous director. Originally, the museum was located within a 19th-century villa in the city’s neighborhood of Sušak, at 12 Petra Zrinskog Street (in what was originally the home of Irish Count Laval Nugent von Westmeath and what exists today as a music school). However, this was only a temporary residence for the museum, as efforts were already underway during the 1960s to establish a more expansive dedicated space for the institution.
After the conclusion of a design competition in 1964 aimed at choosing a design for the new Museum of the Revolution, the proposal put forward by notable Zagreb architect Neven Šegvić was chosen as the winner. Meanwhile, the location in Rijeka chosen for this project was “Museum Square” (today named “Square Riccarda Zanelle”), at a site situated at the northwest corner of the garden courtyard of the former Austro-Hungarian Governor’s Palace in Rijeka (created in 1897 by architect Alajos Hauszmann and today exists as the Maritime and History Museum of the Croatian Coast). Work on the Museum of the Revolution subsequently began in 1972 (seven years after approval by the Municipal Assembly in 1965) and was finished roughly four years later in 1976, when it was ceremoniously unveiled on November 26th. Sources relate that this building was the first post-WWII project in the city created exclusively for civic cultural purposes, as well as being the last architectural project of Neven Šegvić’s career, for which he went on to win the federal Borba Award for excellence in architecture in 1977, the highest professional recognition bestowed in Yugoslavia.
The series of dramatic over-hanging eaves, reminiscent of offset stacked boxes, is the most prominent feature of the Museum of the Revolution created by Neven Šegvić, with this facade fashioned in flat white plaster and a curious lone box window in the upper left-hand corner extending out from its front face looking over the square. Some sources relate that in designing the museum, Šegvić was inspired by the old Whitney Museum of American Art building in New York City, created by Hungarian architect Marcel Breuer. As one 2018 paper describes, the museum and the space around it is an “overlap of various architectural styles, with historicism, secessionism, and modern all being recognized, the balance of which the author tries to preserve and supplement with his measured realization… [and] in the author’s restrained design, clear geometric forms are communicated, cube, lines and surfaces, without decorations or strong expressive elements.” Meanwhile, the pure white facade and geometric character carried over into Šegvić’s interior, with the entire mass pierced with an atrium and balconies looking down through its core.
The Museum of the Revolution stood as among the most significant cultural institutions in Rijeka until the early 1990s, at which point the chaos resulting from the dismantling of Yugoslavia led to the museum ceasing to function under this name. On April 11th, 1994, the institution was rebranded as the “Museum of the City of Rijeka”, at which point it shifted away from its exclusive concentration on the socialist revolution during WWII to being instead a museum focusing instead on the broad and general art and history of the city. In 2002, the museum underwent a massive interior renovation, at which point much of the original layout design and configuration by Šegvić was altered and changed, particularly the deep atrium that pierced through the complex. Further renovations were made between 2019 and 2020, which resulted in the museum being closed for roughly a year. In 2019, the museum building was granted official protection as a cultural heritage site by the Croatian Cultural Heritage Protection Ministry. Today, people in the city often refer to the museum with the affectionate nickname “Kockica” or “Cube”, as a result of its boxy modernist architecture. The official website for the City Museum of Rijeka can be found at THIS link.
5.) Novi Sad, Serbia
Original name: Museum of the Workers' Movement and the People's Revolution of Vojvodina
Current name: Museum of Vojvodina (Museum of Contemporary Art)
Year of construction: 1960-1965
Architect(s): Ivan Vitić
Coordinates: 45°15'23.0"N, 19°51'11.1"E
In the years directly after WWII, numerous groups in Novi Sad attempted to bring together and curate the historical archive of documents, artifacts and history related to the events of the People’s Liberation Struggle (NOB) that transpired across the region of Vojvodina, such as the local institutions of Matica Srpska and the Provincial Committee of the People’s Front. However, in 1956, the responsibility of overseeing Vojvodina’s socialist revolution archive and collection were taken over by the Museum of Vojvodina, which was at that time an administrative body that oversaw all museological institutions across the region. It was at this point that efforts were set forth toward establishing a purpose-built facility for these NOB documents and artifacts. After a 1959 design competition, a proposal that was put forward by Croatian architect Ivan Vitić, who was one of Yugoslavia’s most renowned architects, was awarded first prize. The site chosen for constructing this museum was a site at the corner of the streets Dunavska and Ivo Lola Ribar, just one block away from the Danube River. However, until this facility was completed, the institution, which was given the official title “Museum of the Workers' Movement and the People's Revolution of Vojvodina”, was housed within the Topovnjača building at Petrovaradin Fortress (sharing space with the natural history department).
Construction on Ivan Vitić’s design began in 1960 and was completed roughly five years later in 1965. However, staff, archives and collections were not moved in until four years later in 1969 and the first official permanent exhibit within the newly competed museum not officially open to the public until December 22nd, 1972, which was designed by architect Đuka Kavurić (the same creator of the original exhibition at the Museum of the Revolution in Sarajevo). For its time, the exhibition designed by Kavurić was extremely cutting edge, including cutting edge presentation displays utilizing audio, film strips, dynamic lighting, interactive dioramas and numerous other forward-thinking concepts meant to connect the visitor more closely with the presented history. A modest presentation/cinema hall was also included, which was originally intended for the functions and events workers and laborers (as part of the original mission of the complex was to be a “Museum of the Workers' Movement”). Meanwhile, the complex itself which Vitić designed was fashioned in a style of modernism akin to Mies van der Rohe, with its pavilion shape defined by a rectangular box bearing a raw concrete facade floating above (and cantilevered well beyond) a glass curtain base. Then, above this box floats a flat concrete roof, itself also perched upon and jutting out from a pedestal of glass-paned walls. It is also important to note that the building’s boxy mass (which holds the bulk of the exhibition space) is pierced with a small square through its center, creating at ground level an open courtyard atrium at its core that is adorned with a serene Japanese-style garden and water feature. Glass walls all around the core of the atrium bring significant light into the closed boxy mass of the museum. Meanwhile, one of the main artistic features built into the structure of the museum is a massive stained glass wall panel (roughly 5m x 8m) arranged on the front facade of the complex just above the main entrance. This vibrant glass artwork depicts a colorful abstract scene, created by Belgrade academic artist Zoran Pavlović, that embodies the universal themes of “defiance” and the uprising against oppression.
However, it is crucial to mention, as one source notes, that with the long drawn-out construction schedule that the museum suffered under (most likely due to budgetary constraints), Vitić ended up leaving the museum project before its completion. This may have been the result of the museum not being constructed exactly to his parameters (particularly in relation to ventilation and temperature systems), as well as a secondary building next to the museum that Vitić had planned not being approved for construction. His walking away from this project before completion is most likely for this reason that many compendiums omit the Museum of the Revolution in Novi Sad from Vitić’s lists of accomplished works.
Meanwhile, it was in the early 1970s that the facility took on a new name, “Museum of the Socialist Revolution of Vojvodina” or “Museum of the Revolution” for short. This new name helped to communicate that the museum would focus on not only the war years, but also the post-war reconstruction and the establishment of the self-managing socialist society of Yugoslavia and Vojvodina. Then, in 1974, the Museum of Vojvodina moved in right next door to the Museum of the Revolution, establishing its own permanent headquarters and exhibitions in the old courthouse building, itself a romantic Neo-Baroque style civic building constructed in 1896 by Budapest architect Gyula Wagner. However, after operating as one of the central modern historical museums in Vojvodina during the Yugoslav-era, the Museum of the Revolution underwent significant changes during the 1990s as the federal union of the nation was dismantled. In 1992, the institution and its collection were absorbed by its neighbor, the Museum of Vojvodina and by 1997, much of the museum’s exhibitions related to the socialist revolution, the workers’ movement and post-WWII were removed and put into storage. Meanwhile, the Museum of Contemporary Art of Vojvodina (MSUV) in Novi Sad, which had been evicted in 1999 from the space it was using in the Sports & Business Center of Vojvodina (SPENS), began occasionally using the old Museum of the Revolution site for temporary exhibits. This subsequently led to the MSUV being granted permanent use of the space by the Provincial Committee in May of 2009. In moving in their collection of art and sculpture, only a few minimal changes were made to the overall structure of the museum, with the presentation of the exhibition rooms being very minimal, with just sparse white walls and warm hardwood floors. However, one significant change that was made was covering up Zoran Pavlović’s large stained glass window with wall panels.s
Today, the MSUV continues to operate out of the old Museum of the Revolution building, with a small section of the building utilized by the Museum of Vojvodina’s Department of Recent History. However, as a result of a lack of maintenance over recent deacdes, many aspects of the facility are in need of repairs, especially the the exterior grounds and the ventilation and climate systems. Such repairs are all the more critical, as the building is officially protected as a cultural monument. A design competition was held in 2013 for redeveloping the grounds around the museum, however, despite a winner being awarded, the project was never initiated. A listing of some of MSUV’s collections of paintings and sculptures (which numbers at well over 2,500) can be seen in THIS 2012 catalog published by the institution. The official website for MSUV can be found at THIS link. Finally, an excellent 1972 monograph book about the People’s Revolution Museum of Vojvodina, which contains dozens of rare vintage photographs of the interior exhibits and artwork, can be found at THIS link, courtesy of the “Hronologija izlaganja skulpture u Srbiji” project.
6.) Ljubljana, Slovenia
Original name: Cekin Mansion
Current name: Museum of Contemporary History of Slovenia
Years of construction: 1752-1755
Architect(s): Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Coordinates: 46°03'32.5"N, 14°29'43.6"E
The building that would subsequently become the Museum of the Revolution during the Yugoslav-era was originally constructed as a Baroque-style palace for Austrian nobleman Count Leopold Karl von Lamberg in 1755. Situated at the northern edge of Tivoli Park, the palace was designed according to the plans of famous Viennese architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, who was one of the most influential architects of the Hapsburg Empire. After Leopold's death in 1787, it was inherited by his late son’s wife, Ivana Lamberg, who later went on to marry the Hungarian military officer Lovro Szőgeny. It is from the Slovenized version of his last name “Szőgeny” (spelled as “Cekin”) where the contemporary name of the palace originates. Over the following century and a half, the palace had numerous notable owners and inhabitants, such as the Trieste governor Pompey Count Brigido von Bresowitz, nobleman Sigismund Pagliaruzzi, as well as France Prešeren (the greatest Slovene classical poet) and the Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy, Eugène de Beauharnais (who was the stepson of Napoleon Bonaparte). It was sold in 1865 to Ljubljana merchant Peter Kozler, who is notable for making the first map of Slovenia. The palace stayed in Kozler’s family until WWII, after which point the property was appropriated and nationalized by the new Yugoslav government.s
Before mentioning the palace’s post-WWII Yugoslav-era history, it is important to mention a few words about the architecture of the Cekin Mansion itself. Sitting atop a small hillside in front of a stone-paved terrace, the palace stands out among its surroundings and is framed elegantly among a series of gardens and a grand staircase. The exterior facade is richly ornamented in the Baroque fashion, with a series of pilasters and a central Palladian-style bump-out at the main entrance (an “avant-corps” or “risalto”) adding further dimension and depth to the building’s appearance. Meanwhile, typical to von Erlach’s architectural style, the entirety of the palace is adorned with numerous rows of tall oversized arched windows, further enhancing the light and airy elegance of the complex.
In 1948, the “Museum of the People’s Liberation” (“Muzeja narodne osvoboditve”) was organized by party authorities in Ljubljana, however, at its founding, it did not yet have a dedicated location to host its collection. It was only in 1951 that Cekin Mansion was chosen as the new exhibition space for the museum, at which point exhibition space within the palace was organized and laid out by Slovene architect Edo Mihevc. The first permanent exhibition at the museum opened in 1955, which primarily consisted of information about national heroes and the events of WWII within Slovenia. In its first few years, it was a widely patronized institution (hosting nearly 50,000 people in its first two years), being visited by not only people from across Yugoslavia, but also numerous international delegations. In 1962, the Executive Council of the People’s Assembly of the SR of Slovenia decided that the museum should expand its scope. It was instructed to include pre- and post-WWII information about workers’ movements, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, post-war reconstruction, among other topics. With this change, the museum was given the new name, “The Museum of the People’s Revolution of Slovenia”. A new permanent exhibition including these new themes was opened in 1965. Also, as part of these changes to the museum, a further inclusion was the installation of a bronze statue of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito, created by famous Croatian sculptor Antun Augustinčić [more info about this famous statue can be found in an article I wrote about it HERE].
In the 1980s, there were efforts afoot to build a brand new tailor-made complex for the museum in a new location, but as economic and political issues mounted during that decade, the idea was shelved. The notion became further redundant when the Museum of the People’s Revolution was dissolved in 1991 with the independence of Slovenia and renamed “The Museum of Contemporary History”. The focus of the museum then became about the Slovene history during the 20th century in general. Furthermore, the status of Tito was moved to Castle Brdo, near Kranj, Slovenia (which was one of Tito’s former summer homes). Work on retrofitting the exhibition space for the museum’s reorganization was undertaken by engineer Jurij Kobe, who was subsequently recognized for these efforts with the Plečnik Award for excellence in architecture. This new permanent exhibition, designed by curators Gojko Zupan and Modest Erbežnik, for the museum was opened in June of 1996. It is his exhibition, with various updates and alterations over the years, that continues to remain on display up to the present day. A significant archive of Yugoslav-era materials, from the Museum of the Revolution time period of the institution, sits in storage in the palace’s basement, such as Tito busts/portraits, Yugoslav flags, and other artifacts. In 2002, the building was designated as a cultural monument of historical architectural importance. Meanwhile, negotiations with the Kozler family descendants over the denationalization of the Cekin Mansion, who wish the property to be returned to them after it was taken away after WWII, continue up to the present day.
7.) Prilep, North Macedonia
Original name: [unknown]
Current name: October 11th Memorial Museum
Year of construction: 1880s
Coordinates: 41°20'42.3"N 21°33'08.3"E
In the center of the city of Prilep, North Macedonia, positioned right on Metodija Andonov-Čento Town Square, is the institute that today stands as the October 11th Memorial Museum, which is dedicated to the uprising and revolution initiated on that date in 1941 when Partisan fighters rose up against fascist occupation and oppression. The building the museum exists in was constructed around the 1880s, but little information is available about when precisely it was built, who its architect was or what its original function was. What is known is that it served several purposes during the early 20th century, such as retail space for a wine merchant, a student dormitory for the Teachers' School and the High School, among other things. However, the building started to take on significant importance as WWII began, as the building was appropriated by the occupying Bulgarian fascist police and employed as their main headquarters. When Partisans initiated their uprising in Prilep, which was the start of the popular uprising all together across the Macedonian region, this police precinct was one of the locations of which they attacked and took over.
In the late 1940s, efforts were put forward by local authorities in Prilep to transform this historic structure into a museum complex which would valorize the events of the 1941 popular uprising against fascist occupation. As such, on October 11th, 1962, on the 20th anniversary of the uprising, a permanent exhibition was opened with the complex, which was given the name “October 11th Memorial Museum” (“Меморијален музеј 11 Октомври”). The exhibition that curators assembled contained hundreds of historical photos, artifacts, dioramas, military weaponry, as well as memorial artworks. One of the most significant of these artworks is a large vibrant wall mural by famous local artist Borko Lazeski [profile page], which depicts a dynamic and dramatic interpretation of the uprising in tones of red and gold (which can be found on the western wall of Hall 3). This museum took a central role in the 1975 celebrations when the Prilep was awarded the distinction of being a “City of Heroes”, bestowed by Josip Broz Tito himself. Over the subsequent decades during the Yugoslav-era, the exhibition underwent slight modifications and expansions, with the most extensive effort occurring in 1983, where the whole exhibition was given an updated appearance.
In the years after the end of the Yugoslav-era and the beginning of the independence of the new nation that is today known as North Macedonia, the museum kept its original name and function, something which makes this location singularly stand out among all of the other museums on this list. In 2003, the building was landmarked as a cultural monument of national importance. A virtual tour of the museum can be watched at THIS You Tube link. The official website of the museum network of Prilep can be found at THIS link.
8.) Nikšić, Montenegro
Original name: House of the Revolution (Dom Revolucije)
Current name: n/a
Years of construction: 1976 to present-day
Architect(s): Marko Mušič
Coordinates: 42°46'35.0"N, 18°56'56.2"E
On September 8th, 1974, a day which marked the 30th anniversary of the liberation of the town of Nikšić, Montenegro, the town’s municipal council made the decision to construct a memorial house dedicated to the socialist revolution and those who fell during WWII fighting on its behalf. The name of this new institution was to be the "House of the Revolution" (Dom Revolucije). After a design competition was held soon thereafter, first prize was awarded to a submission put forward by Slovenian architect Marko Mušič (who had also created the Spomen-Dom at Kolašin). The overall character of the building that Mušič envisioned was defined by an escalating series of shapes formed of angular concrete terraces and platforms, all containing within them a vast array of open spaces sheltered by panes of reflective deep blue glass. In this hybrid facade design of both raw concrete and blue glass panes, Mušič was working to unite together the solid and the amorphous, the ground and the sky, sharp angels with rolling waves, in what is essentially a work on contradictions that is both poetic yet imposing. Furthermore, it is within this synthesis that Mušič’s design takes on a postmodern aesthetic, with many similarities seen between the Neue Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, Germany, itself a postmodern icon built around the same time. Meanwhile, other sources note that the form of the House of the Revolution also references local topography: “though the relation of the building to the built space is almost abstract, it is clear that the form originated from the morphology of the surrounding hills and mountains that borders Nikšić”. Interestingly, plans of the House of the Revolution bear keen similarities to the Biosphere 2 project in Arizona, however, that project began nearly 10 years after the one here in Nikšić. This comparison becomes even more interesting when seeing that, like Biosphere 2, the House of the Revolution project was also envisioned as a type of “utopian project”.
Meanwhile, his plan for a vast community complex with further than just museum space, with it also being designed to contain a cultural center, a 1,20 seat theatre, classrooms, gallery, TV studio, a library, catering facilities, and much more. Before work could begin on the chosen building site, which was a spot situated just north of Nikšić's central square, the Elementary School "Olga Golović" (built right after WWII) had to be demolished. The cornerstone of the Dom Revolucije was then laid on September 8th, 1978 after which construction began in full. The project cost huge sums of money, with some sources estimating upwards of 25 million euros in today's values. The original size of the complex was originally only planned to be around 7,000 sq meters, however, through its construction during the 80s, the scope of the project increased to the point where by the end of the 80s, it had nearly tripled in size from its original projections as a result of requests for inclusions from various political bodies. However, it was at this point during the later part of the 80s that Yugoslavia began to experience extreme financial and political turmoil.
In 1989, Yugoslavia’s deteriorating situation meant that the city of Nikšić could no longer rely on supportive funds for the project from other Yugoslav republics (much less other Montenegrin cities). As such, the construction at the Dom Revolucije came to a complete halt. With the passing years, the unfinished and exposed structure sat largely abandoned and neglected through the subsequent decades. Furthermore, it has been extremely defaced and damaged over the years as the massive concrete husk is exploited by vandals, derelicts, weathering and encroaching vegetation. During this time, its degraded state stood as a sore spot and contentious issue among the citizens and politicians of Nikšić, as well being a dangerous and hazardous area, as well over a dozen people have died in the structure since the 1990s from falling and/or drowning in the flooded basement. As one source notes: “Over time, the building became the antithesis of everything that is supposed to represent.” However, during the 2010s, it began to receive renewed attention, such as in 2014, when the Montenegro Pavilion at the 2014 Venice Biennale included the Dom Revolucije among the country's architectural wonders in the 'Treasures in Disguise' presentation.
Meanwhile, in 2016, a team of architects formulated plans to complete and rehabilitate the ailing structure. By mid-2020, some new construction for the redevelopment of the complex had been completed, yet this also included the demolition of part of the original structure. News articles report that developers say that the demolished sections of the complex were the result of concrete instability and that they will be rebuilt exactly as they were. Reports as of July of 2021 further indicate that the entire structure may very well be demolished. In that article, the architect Marko Mušič, who has been consistently working to preserve the complex over the decades, states: "I simply cannot understand why the people of Nikšić hate this (foreseen) center of culture, education, spirituality and youth, which was dedicatedly and with great self-denial created by their parents in a noble desire to give their children a better future and a chance for equal inclusion in the globalized reality of the world of our new times." Finally, an interesting and unconventional utilization undergone by the ruins of the House of the Revolution in recent years has been its inclusion as a filming backdrop for the 2017 song "All Falls Down" by the British-Norwegian music producer and DJ Alan Walker.
And Many More:
The above list of eight institutions were by no means the only museum/complexes dedicated to Yugoslavia’s Socialist Revolution, however, these were by means the most significant examples. Smaller institutions existed in other places such as Split in Croatia, Celje in Slovenia, and Bečej, Sremska Mitrovica, Vrbas, and Aranđelovac in Serbia... among others.