Signs of the Past: 13 Lasting Marks of "TITO" on the former-Yugoslav Landscape
Updated: Feb 17, 2021
Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito was a rare character, even among other world leaders of his era. While many of the leaders and figureheads of WWII did their commanding from afar, Tito was right there down in the dirt fighting, dodging explosions and getting shot at, all as he led his Partisan Army to a seemingly unlikely victory against a formidable and much more well equipped adversary. As such, when Tito came to power In Yugoslavia through his Socialist Revolution at the end of WWII, he did so with a level of credibility and popular support almost unimaginable in today's context. Through the Yugoslav-era, Tito's name was memorialized and paid tribute to in every way imaginable, everything from children spelling it out in 100m tall letters at the Relay of Youth, to having it arranged by military fighter planes as they flew overhead during ceremonial events.
However, in addition to such celebratory occasions, Tito's name was immortalized in a myriad of more permanent ways as well. Across socialist Yugoslavia during its more than four decades of existence, hundreds (if not thousands) of examples of Tito's name populated the landscape, which included not only traditional signs and banners, but also included more over-the-top examples such as "TITO" being etched in massive 30m tall letters directly onto the landscape or written out in a small forest of planted trees. Some of these creations were official memorial creations, however, many were simply popular grassroots constructions built by local communities who wanted to express their support. When Tito passed away in 1980 at the age of 88, the creation of Tito signs and the building of these Tito "geoglyphs" grew to an unprecedented scale. However, upon the dismantling of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, many of these Tito signs were removed or destroyed in the era of new governments taking over these newly independent nations. Today it is unknown how many signs and inscriptions bearing Tito's name exist across the landscape. This article will look at 13 examples this continue to exist and endure, even decades after the end of the Yugoslav era.
1.) Belgrade, Serbia
Location: Belgrade, Serbia in the Banjica neighborhood
Type: planted trees to spell out Tito's name
Year created: 1980
Coordinates: 44°45'40.1"N, 20°28'13.0"E
Description: It was not until satellite images on the internet became widely available in the last decade or so that the residents of Belgrade finally became aware that a massive 215m long line of trees spelling out "TITO" between the Military Medical Academy and the Security Information Agency in the neighborhood of Banjica. The origin of this massive landscape project has an interesting story. While many "TITO" shaped memorial hedges and tree plantings were made after the passing of Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito in 1980, this is interestingly NOT part of that phenomenon.
As reported by the Insajder newspaper, when the Military Medical Academy and the Security Information Agency buildings were being constructed in the mid 1970s, there was a feud between the leadership of the two agencies about where the fence line and border between the buildings would be. The landscape architect who was tasked with the site's tree planting had a clever idea to remediate the situation. The architect obtained 360 pine trees and instructed his grounds workers to plant them in such a way that would spell out "TITO" in Cyrillic letters between the contested land parcels. Soon after the planting was completed, the military leadership of the two opposing agencies boarded a helicopter to yet-again survey the area of the boundary dispute. However, this time, as they rose into the air, to their surprise the military leaders saw Tito's name blazed across the landscape. At that moment, the military leaders of both agencies conceded that line as the boundary between the two agencies, because neither side dared to propose an objection which would alter or demolish Tito's pine tree name. However, being that the site has continued to be a military installation up until the present-day, the pine tree arrangement was off-limits to civilians. It was only in recent times that its existence was made aware to the public.
2.) Mravinjac, BiH
Location: Mravinjac, Bosnia & Herzegovina, near Goražde
Type: The name 'TITO' written in white stone on the hillside
Year created: 1980
Coordinates: 43°37'48.5"N, 18°56'32.4"E
Description: On the north banks of the Drina River at the village of Mravinjac, just 7km upriver from the town of Goražde, is a massive 30m wide and 15m tall inscription of the name "TITO" etched onto the hillside. Located just off the main highway between Foča and Goražde, this landmark is unmistakable for all those who pass by it. This memorial complex was created in 1980 by a community effort only a few months after Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito's passing. Above Tito's name is fittingly a big red star in addition to a meticulous planting of 88 pine trees which symbolize each of the 88 years of Tito's life (which, after 40 years, have grown quite tall). While many similar types of memorial "Tito" geoglyphs were created across the Yugoslav landscape upon Tito's passing in 1980, sources seem to suggest that this work here at Mravinjac is the very last surviving example of such memorial land art in Bosnia. Despite the occasional vandal, the local community here at Mravinjac have continued dutifully over the decades to maintain and preserve this site, even holding annual clean-up groups and remembrance events. In an interview with Aljazeera, a local journalist Slavko Klisura relates the following personal feelings towards this monument, "The Tito memorial is not just letters, not even its 88 pine trees symbolizing 88 years of Joseph Broz's life, not even a flag, it is much more than that, it is a place that invites humanity, dignity and should be visited even more and protected."
3. Barban, Croatia
Location: Barban, Croatia
Type: Concrete letters installed into the hillside
Year created: 1946
Coordinates: 45°04'28.2"N, 14°01'03.0"E
Description: On the scrubby hillsides just north of the small Istrian village of Barban, Croatia is a 22m wide inscription of "TITO" made onto the ground, its position making it visible throughout the entire valley. Sources relate that this inscription originates to just after WWII in 1946, when local sheepherders of the area rejoiced at Istria becoming part of Croatia and subsequently honored Partisan Army leader Josip Broz Tito by inscribing his name in stones onto the landscape. After Tito passed away in 1980, the inscription was renewed with a more sturdy and visible stone wall. However, after the dismantling of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, the "TITO" geoglyph began to be attacked and taken apart by vandals. As a result, people in the local community came together in the 1990s to create a more permanent form for the landmark inscription in reinforced concrete, while it was also painted bright white so it could be see from a further distance through the valley. It remains intact to present day and is an important local symbol and attraction for visiting tourists to the area.
4. Kladovo, Serbia
Location: Novi Sip, Serbia near Kladovo
Type: A Yugoslavia flag and Tito name in concrete
Year created: 1980
Coordinates: 44°40'04.7"N, 22°31'09.0"E
Description: Overlooking the Danube River and the massive Đerdap (Iron Gate) Hydroelectric Dam is a substantial monument dedicated to the life of Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito that was built just after his death in 1980. The monument consists of a roughly 25m wide Yugoslav flag painted on a pad of flat concrete, above which are a set of four tall standing concrete letters (each roughly 2.5m tall) which spell out "TITO", all pointing towards the river in the direction of Romania. Some sources I have read relate that the vantage point this monument was built on was done so in a somewhat taunting way as to be visible from across the river in Romania where its notorious leader Ceaușescu reportedly had a summer villa. However, I have not been able to verify such a villa of Ceaușescu existed anywhere close to this location. This monument continues to exist in a good condition, hosting annual clean-up days and commemorative events.
5. Sabotin Mountain, Slovenia
Location: Sabotin Mountain near Nova Gorica, Slovenia
Type: Rocks arranged on a hillside to spell Tito's name
Year created: 1978