16 Works of Yugoslav Modernist Architecture in Africa & the Middle East

Updated: Jul 6

In recent years, the unique modernist architecture of Yugoslavia has begun to be increasingly celebrated around the world and recognized for being a singular architectural manifestation, distinct from the work made by either the Cold-War eastern or western powers. However, what has not received as much attention or recognition are the works by Yugoslav architects that were built outside the area of Yugoslavia. Because of the influence and political relationships which Yugoslavia cultivated through creating and participating in the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) (which was a "a forum of 120 developing world states that were not formally aligned with or against any major power blocs"), Yugoslavia was thus able to export its architecture and modernist design aesthetics to many NAM member states. One of the most noticeable footprints in this regard made by Yugoslavia was in creating a huge amount of buildings and infrastructure across the African and the Middle Eastern landscape. Many of these architectural works have long gone unrecognized, not only as excellent examples of Yugoslav architecture, but also as stunning examples of modernist world architecture in their own right. The whole phenomenon of Yugoslav architecture in Africa and the Middle East is only just beginning to be explored, most notably by academic researcher Łukasz Stanek. Here I will give a brief run-down of sixteen notable architectural examples that will help to communicate an idea of the variety of forms in which Yugoslav modernism manifested itself across these regions during this pivotal time period.

1.) International Trade Fair, Lagos, Nigeria

Name: International Trade Fair complex

Location: Lagos, Nigeria

Architect(s): Zoran Bojović, with Predrag Ðaković, Milorad Cvijić & Ljiljana Bojović

Year completed: 1974-1977

Coordinates: 6°27'49.1"N 3°14'49.6"E

Description: Located just off of the Lagos-Badagry Expressway on the western edge of Lagos, Nigeria is situated the 350 hectare International Trade Fair complex. This massive development project was intended to host Nigeria's first ever international trade fair and upon its opening in 1977, it was said to be the largest market place ever created in sub-Saharan Africa. The creation of the trade fair grounds, which ended up totaling 40,000 sq m, was built by Yugoslav construction/engineering firm Energoprojekt, while the buildings of the complex were designed by a design team lead by Belgrade architect Zoran Bojović. The spatial planning of the complex is characterized by its circular flow of connectivity and accessibility between exhibition halls, which was a layout Bojović formulated after being inspired by the results he saw from a field research exercise in rural Nigeria where he asked young village children to draw maps of their small communities. Meanwhile, while the buildings themselves display an playfully ambitious design which invokes a wistful future-oriented design of angular and geometric styles. While the complex continues to host various activities and events, many parts of it have descended into a poor condition over recent years. The most prevalent activity of the former fairground complex is the sale of use car parts, of which it is the largest marketplace of this kind in all of Nigeria.

2.) The FINDECO House, Lusaka, Zambia